Course Details

ELE 734 Digital Communications II
2020-2021 Spring term information

The course is open this term
Supervisor(s):Dr. Emre Aktaž
OnlineWednesday14:00 - 16:45

Timing data are obtained using weekly schedule program tables. To make sure whether the course is cancelled or time-shifted for a specific week one should consult the supervisor and/or follow the announcements.

Course definition tables are extracted from the ECTS Course Catalog web site of Hacettepe University ( in real-time and displayed here. Please check the appropriate page on the original site against any technical problems. Course data last updated on 20/04/2021.


Course Name Code Semester Theory
Credit ECTS
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS II ELE734 Any Semester/Year 3 0 3 10
Course languageTurkish
Course typeElective 
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-Face 
Learning and teaching strategiesLecture
Question and Answer
Problem Solving
Instructor (s)Department Faculty 
Course objectiveThe aim is to give to the students an in-depth understanding of the topics below; - Multipath fading and shadowing and their effects on bit error performance - Diversity and combining techniques to alleviate the effects of fading and shadowing, - Use of SIMO, MISO and MIMO techniques to alleviate the effects of fading and shadowing, - Multiple-access communications and related protocols.  
Learning outcomes
  1. A student completing the course successfully will L.O.1. understand the multipath fading and shadowing phenomena,
  2. L.O.2. understand the use of diversity and combining techniques to improve the system performance,
  3. L.O.3. understand the use and advantages of multiple antenna techniques (SIMO, MISI and MIMO) to alleviate the degrading effects of multipath fading.
  4. L.O.4. understand multiple-access communications and the related protocols.
Course ContentFading multipath channels: Slow/fast, flat/frequency-selective fading. BER calculations in fading and shadowing channels.
Diversity and combining techniques. SIMO, MISO and MIMO systems
Multiple access communications. TDD, FDD, Fixed-assignment, demand-assignment and random access protocols. ALOHA, CSMA, token-ring.
Wireless access protocols and systems. Wi-Max, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Zig-bee.
ReferencesŽafak, M., Digital Communications, Lecture notes, 2012
Proakis, J., Digital Communications (4th ed.), McGraw Hill, 2000
Sklar, B., Digital Communications (2nd ed.), Prentice Hall, 2001
Goldsmith, A., Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005

Course outline weekly

Week 1Fading multipath channels. Time-variant multipath channels, statistical characterisation of multipath channels.
Week 2Multipath intensity profile, frequency and time selectivity, coherence time, coherence bandwidth.
Week 3Channel impulse response, channel model, slow fading, fast fading,
Week 4Mobile radio channel, digital signaling over flat and frequency selective slowly fading channels. Rake demodulator.
Week 5Diversity and combining techniques. Transmit vs receive diversity. Macroscopic and microscopic diversity. Time, frequency, space, angle and polarisation diversity.
Week 6SIMO systems. Diversity combining techniques. Pre-detection and post-detection combining. Selective and switched combining. Equal-gain combining and maximal ratio combining.
Week 7Midterm Exam I
Week 8The performance of diversity systems in fading. MISO systems with channel state information (CSI) (un)available at the transmitter. Alamouti technique.
Week 9MIMO systems. Diversity gain, multiplexing gain and array gain. MIMO channel capacity.
Week 10Multiple access communications. TDD and FDD. Fixed-assignment, demand-assignment and random access. Frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA). Capacity of FDMA, TDMA and C
Week 11Random access methods; ALOHA, slotted ALOHA, reservation ALOHA, carrier sense multiple access (CSMA), token-ring. Polling techniques.
Week 12Midterm Exam II
Week 13Wireless access protocols and systems. WiMax, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Zigbee.
Week 14Queueing theory; Erlang-B and C formulas.
Week 15Preparation to Final exam
Week 16Final exam

Assesment methods

Course activitiesNumberPercentage
Field activities00
Specific practical training00
Final exam150
Percentage of semester activities contributing grade succes950
Percentage of final exam contributing grade succes150

Workload and ECTS calculation

Activities Number Duration (hour) Total Work Load
Course Duration (x14) 14 3 42
Laboratory 0 0 0
Specific practical training000
Field activities000
Study Hours Out of Class (Preliminary work, reinforcement, ect)148112
Presentation / Seminar Preparation11212
Homework assignment6424
Midterms (Study duration)23060
Final Exam (Study duration) 13030
Total Workload3887280

Matrix Of The Course Learning Outcomes Versus Program Outcomes

D.9. Key Learning OutcomesContrubition level*
1. Has highest level of knowledge in certain areas of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.   X 
2. Has knowledge, skills and and competence to develop novel approaches in science and technology.    X
3. Follows the scientific literature, and the developments in his/her field, critically analyze, synthesize, interpret and apply them effectively in his/her research.  X  
4. Can independently carry out all stages of a novel research project.  X  
5. Designs, plans and manages novel research projects; can lead multidisiplinary projects. X   
6. Contributes to the science and technology literature.  X  
7. Can present his/her ideas and works in written and oral forms effectively; in Turkish or English. X   
8. Is aware of his/her social responsibilities, evaluates scientific and technological developments with impartiality and ethical responsibility and disseminates them.  X  

*1 Lowest, 2 Low, 3 Average, 4 High, 5 Highest

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