Course Details

ELE 680 Radar Systems
2021-2022 Fall term information

The course is not open this term

Timing data are obtained using weekly schedule program tables. To make sure whether the course is cancelled or time-shifted for a specific week one should consult the supervisor and/or follow the announcements.

Course definition tables are extracted from the ECTS Course Catalog web site of Hacettepe University ( in real-time and displayed here. Please check the appropriate page on the original site against any technical problems. Course data last updated on 24/01/2022.


Course Name Code Semester Theory
Credit ECTS
RADAR SYSTEMS ELE680 Any Semester/Year 3 0 3 8
Course languageTurkish
Course typeElective 
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-Face 
Learning and teaching strategiesLecture
Question and Answer
Problem Solving
Instructor (s)Department Faculty 
Course objectiveIt is aimed to give the following topics to the students; Radar fundamentals, Radar transmitters, and antennas, Radar wave propagation, Radar Target Models; Radar Cross Section (RCS) and clutter, Radar Receiver, Indicators and Displays, Radar Detection and Matched Filter, Ambiguity Function, Fundamentals of Radar Waveform Analysis, Pulse Compression, Fundamentals of CW and Pulsed Radars, Target Tracking and SAR Radars, to form a solid coverage of elements of radar systems starting from radar signal generation to the most complicated radar signal processing in tracking and SAR radars so that the students can identify the significance of each radar component and processing stage in the context of a radar system.  
Learning outcomes
  1. L.O.1. Understand the functions, application and hardware and software components of a radar system,
  2. L.O.2. Have a solid understanding of environmental components of a radar system,
  3. L.O.3. Identify the constraints in a radar system design,
  4. L.O.4. Choose the appropriate components, algorithms and modes of operation according to the constraints in a radar system design,
  5. L.O.5. Have the foundations to design a real life radar system.
Course ContentRadar fundamentals; Radar transmitters; Radar antennas; Radar wave propagation between transmitter and receiver units; Radar target models; RCS; Radar clutter; Radar receiver and detection; Indicators and displays; Matched Filter; Ambiguity Function;Radar waveform analysis and Pulse Compression; Fundamentals of CW and Pulsed Radars; Fundamentals of target tracking; Fundamentals of SAR Radars
ReferencesMahafza, B.R., Radar System Analysis and Design Using MATLAB, Chapman &
Hall/CRC, 2000.

Eaves, J.L. and Reedy, E.K., Eds., Principles of Modern Radar, Van Nostrand Reindhold
Company, 1987.

Levanon, N., Radar Principles, John Wiley, 1988.

Skolnik, M.I., Introduction to Radar Systems, 2nd Ed, McGraw Hill, 1981.

Barton, D.K., Radar System Analysis, Prentice Hall, 1964.

Skolnik, M.I., Radar Handbook, 2nd Ed, McGraw Hill, 1990.

Nathanson, F.E., Radar Design Principles, McGraw Hill, 1969.

Long, M.W., Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea, Artech House, 1983.
Internet Web Sites

Course outline weekly

Week 1Radar Fundamentals: definition, brief history, functions of radar, types of radar, components of a radar system, examples of radar systems, radar range equation, basics of a radar waveform, range and range resolution, Doppler shift and frequency reso
Week 2Radar Transmitter Fundamentals, Power Oscillator ? Transmitter configuration, Master Oscillator ? Power Amplifier Transmitter configuration, Transmitter Parameters, Magnetron Oscillator, Klystron, Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers (TWT)
Week 3Antenna Fundamentals, Frequency Chart, Maxwell?s Equations, Radiation Mechanism, Radiation Integrals and Auxiliary Potentials, Field Regions, Antenna Signal in Transmission, Radiation from Current Elements and Apertures, Important Antenna Parameters,
Week 4Propagation Path: Why Propagation?, Radar Signal in Propagation, Atmospheric Layers, Atmospheric Attenuation, Refraction and Effective Earth Model, Multipath, Reflection, Pattern Propagation Factor, Diffraction and Interference
Week 5Target: Target Signal, Radar Cross Section (RCS), Cross Sections and Scattering Amplitude, RCS of Complex Objects, Basic RCS Reduction Techniques, Point and Vertically Extensive Targets, Statistical Models / Swerling Models
Week 6Radar Clutter: General characteristics of clutter, models of clutter, examples of simulated clutter signals, techniques for clutter cancellation, Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector
Week 7Fundamentals of Radar Receiver, Noise, Receiver Types: Superregenerative receiver, Crystal video receiver, Tuned radio frequency receiver (TRF), Superheterodyne receiver, Mixers,
Week 8Midterm Exam
Week 9Radar Detection in Noise, Detector Laws, Detector characteristics, Pulse Integration, Probability of Detection, Probability of False Alarm
Week 10Matched Filter, Ambiguity Function, Examples of Ambiguity Function computation for various radar signals, example of locating a target in range-Doppler space
Week 11Radar Waveform Analysis, Pulse Compression, Time-Bandwidth product, analog pulse compression, digital pulse compression
Week 12Fundamentals of CW, FMCW, Pulsed Radars, comparison of CW and Pulsed Radars, Application examples
Week 13Fundamentals of Target Tracking Radars, Monopulse antenna systems, phased array systems, track-while-scan radars, application examples
Week 14Fundamentals of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), different modes of operation, definition of range resolution, SAR data processing, imaging with SAR, application examples
Week 15Final exam
Week 16Final exam

Assesment methods

Course activitiesNumberPercentage
Field activities00
Specific practical training00
Final exam140
Percentage of semester activities contributing grade succes060
Percentage of final exam contributing grade succes040

Workload and ECTS calculation

Activities Number Duration (hour) Total Work Load
Course Duration (x14) 14 3 42
Laboratory 0 0 0
Specific practical training000
Field activities000
Study Hours Out of Class (Preliminary work, reinforcement, ect)14570
Presentation / Seminar Preparation000
Homework assignment10440
Midterms (Study duration)14040
Final Exam (Study duration) 14545
Total Workload4097237

Matrix Of The Course Learning Outcomes Versus Program Outcomes

D.9. Key Learning OutcomesContrubition level*
1. Has general and detailed knowledge in certain areas of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in addition to the required fundamental knowledge.    X
2. Solves complex engineering problems which require high level of analysis and synthesis skills using theoretical and experimental knowledge in mathematics, sciences and Electrical and Electronics Engineering.    X
3. Follows and interprets scientific literature and uses them efficiently for the solution of engineering problems.    X
4. Designs and runs research projects, analyzes and interprets the results.   X 
5. Designs, plans, and manages high level research projects; leads multidiciplinary projects.   X 
6. Produces novel solutions for problems.   X 
7. Can analyze and interpret complex or missing data and use this skill in multidiciplinary projects.   X 
8. Follows technological developments, improves him/herself , easily adapts to new conditions.    X 
9. Is aware of ethical, social and environmental impacts of his/her work.  X  
10. Can present his/her ideas and works in written and oral form effectively; uses English effectively X   

*1 Lowest, 2 Low, 3 Average, 4 High, 5 Highest

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